- Adaptation of camel to climatic changes in relation to temperature, humidity index - research on stress physiology
» Research Activities
- Gene mining for abiotic and biotic stress and application of molecular markers like HSP to assess heat tolerance capacity of camel
- Shelter management research in view of impending climatic changes.
- Nutritional and managemental approaches to address the issues of adaptation under different environs.
- Complete profiling of haemato-biochemical, hormonal, enzymatic and mineral status of camel at different stages of growth, pregnancy & lactation
- Assessment of draftability of camel, energy budgeting and utilization in different spheres of transportation, farm operation and power generation.
- Assessment of camel energy during cart pulling & agricultural operations.
- Power generation through camel draughtability.
- Blood biochemical markers viz. lactate, creatinine kinase and cortisol have been found to be useful for fatigue under work stress.
- Adaptive response of Indian camel to water restriction in different climatic conditions indicated its capacity to withstand water up to 20% of body weight loss and recoup up to 96% of lost body weight after single rehydration.
- Results indicated a significant association of body length, draught force and height at withers with speed during riding/race.
- Physiological, blood biochemical parameters viz. blood, urea, creatinine, bilirubin, osmolarity, cholesterol and physiological responses serve as very good markers for adaptability for water restriction.
- Studies on poll glands indicated higher cellular activity and large quantity of androgens during breeding season than that of serum level. It is closely associated with male reproductive function.
- Camel can easily pull 1, 2 or 3 tyne ploughs in sandy soils for about 6 hrs daily with an intermittent rest of 3 hr and can plough at a rate of 750-1050 square meter/hr. The depth of ploughed land measured 9-15 cm.
- Camel can generate draft force of 17-22% of body weight and produces 1.16 H.P.
- An Indian camel can haul 1.5 to 2 tones of load for around 8 hrs covering a distance of 30-35 kms/day on two/four wheel cart with in-between rest of about 3-3.5 hrs.
- Bikaneri camels are better than Jaisalmeri and Kachchhi for endurance for draught whereas Jaisalmeri breed performs better for riding/race.
- Heart girth, height at wither, body weight and body length of camel are positively correlated with horse power and draught.
- Post-harvest processing and value addition of different camel products adhering to safety and quality parameters
» Research Activities
- Processing, value addition and commercialization of different camel products and by-products.
- Evaluation of camel milk for its therapeutic value and its exploitation as functional food.
- Camel milk has lower percentages of fat and total solids compared to cattle and buffalo milk while higher percentages of total salts free calcium, protective proteins, vitamin C and micro minerals viz. iron, copper and zinc.
- Milk may be utilized for human consumption after three week of parturition.
- Shelf life of raw camel milk is 8 hours at 37°C and more than 3 week at 4 -6°. Extension of shelf life of raw camel milk up to 20 hours can be done by using LP system activation.
- Immunoproteins (IgG, IgA, IgM, C3 and C4) have been found in highest concentration in camel blood , colostrum and milk.
- Small chain fatty acids are present in lesser amount than large chain fatty acids in camel milk.
- The development of acidity is comparatively slow in camel milk than cattle milk.
- The heat coagulation time (HCT) of camel milk gets stable after pH 7.2 to 7.6.
- Camel milk has higer concentration of whey proteins compared to cow milk.
- Camel milk whey proteins are more heat resistant than the cow milk whey protein
- 23kDa whey protein is expressed in camel milk and not in cow milk.
- Camel milk skin cream has softening, soothing and glowing effect in human.
- Various camel milk products viz., kulfee, flavoured milk, lassi, paneer, cheese, mawa, gulabjamun, barfi, camel milk powder, tea and coffee were developed and evaluated.
- Camel reproduction and physiological efficiency improvement to support optimal production
- Studies on the biochemical parameters of semen for increasing its efficacy
- Improving the efficacy of artificial insemination in camel using existing and emerging technologies
- Developing suitable protocols for super ovulation and synchronization
- Identification of factors responsible for reproductive disorders and development of technology for countering the same
- Role of sexual and bio-stimulation in camel reproduction
- Assessment of fertility status in camel as influenced by different production environment
- Studies on reproductive endocrinology
- Artificial collection of semen from male camels is feasible during a particular part of the year.
- The ability to donate semen is at peak during mid January–February months and it may be sustained by the end of May month. From second half of June to October, sexual interest expressed by male camel is negligible.
- Camel start regaining libido during December month.
- Circulating testosterone profiles are positively correlated with sexual libido.
- Camel spermatozoa are least vulnerable to such adverse conditions like contact with rubber or exposed to ordinary cold or hot conditions.
- Freshly ejaculated camel semen does not exhibit mass motility because spermatozoa are not free to move. It is speculated that while ejaculation, spermatozoa are coated with substances which might have chemo-attractant properties to agglutinate them into a sperm depot. This sperm- depot is a thick thread like gel, which doesn’t liquefy and or mix with buffers spermatozoa evacuating from depot. Spermatozoa remain viable in the depot under refrigerator preservation for several weeks/months despite non- miscibility with dilutors.
- Cryopreservation of camel semen and demonstration of viable spermatozoa in thawed semen has been accomplished.
- Progestagen ear implant, PMSG, HCG treatment had poor response in camel for superovulation.
- Early postpartum breeding was attempted with moderate success by sonographic detection of ovarian follicular status
- Radio immunoassay based analysis of estradiol and progesterone have been performed in different reproductive stages of female camels and analysis of testosterone in male camels round the year along with correlation of testosterone profiles with sexual libido and volume of semen ejaculated.
- Analysis of circulating Estradiol profiles in female camels showed that basal levels are relatively higher.